Flowers 3-4 mm in diametre, small, yellow, in panicles. timur translation in Malay-English dictionary. Private lands: In the study area, there is no clear-cut dichotomy between community and private property. In theory, other trees yielding edible fruits could also be cultivated on these terraces. The fruits and seeds are used as an aromatic tonic for fever and dyspepsia. He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe that had been turkified in many aspects. Allozymic, Morphological, Phenological, Linguistic, Plant Use, and Nutritional Data on... Allozymic, Morphological, Phenological, Linguistic, Plant Use, and Nutritional Data of... Who Should Lead Us? The timur fruit is carefully collected by hand. It is situated at the northern side of the Mahabarat mountain range, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon and is responsible for relatively low precipitation in the area. For this purpose, both group discussions and individual interviews were held. Timur cultivation was also stimulated by the possibility of using timur as collateral for loans. Several authors have suggested that extraction of NTFPs from natural forests should not be conceived as a discrete activity but rather as the first stage in a process of gradual domestication of valuable NTFP species (Homma 1992; Wiersum 1996). Make Homemade Soft Pretzels and Win the Weekend + Newsletter Shop Site Feedback FAQ / Help Center. The main management objectives formulated by the Forest Department for these forests are protection and production of timber and other commercial products. Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Timur en las frases, escucha la pronunciación y aprende gramática. Most of this manufacturing takes place in India, which therefore has a well-established commercial outlet for dried timur fruits (Edwards 1996; Den Hertog 1997). This is reflected in the occurrence of many timur shrubs or small trees around cultivated farmland. Nepali Mann Udhyog Timur Ko Chhop, Farnborough, Hampshire. Parts Used: Roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds. Red Chilli & Timmur mixed together to create a distinct flavor, that people from Nepal have come to love for generations.. Hamro ban: In contrast to the sarkari ban forests, in the hamro ban forests, local people have often initiated management practices for timur collection. The fruits and seeds are employed as an aromatic tonic in fever and dyspesia. In community-controlled natural forests, management usually consists of controlling utilization through the definition and control of user rights. Seeds 2 mm in diametre, oval and dark. Cookies help us deliver our services. Welcome visitor you can login or create an account. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. In this model, different phases of people–plant interaction are arranged along a gradient of increasing input of human energy per unit of exploited land, from uncontrolled utilization through controlled utilization to protection and maintenance to purposeful regeneration. Nepal pepper - Szechwan pepper, Sichuan pepper, Chinese pepper, (Z. armatum) - Timmur - (टिम्मुर, तिम्बुर) Also known as ban timmur or Nepali pepper, this is a highly pungent, sharp tasting dried berry from the prickly ash shrub family. According to Nepal Rastra Bank (1994), from 1980 to 1994, the price index for consumer goods increased from 74.6 to 287.4 (base year 1983–1984). Pimienta de Sichuan ( China: 花椒; pinyin: Huajiao) (también pimienta Sichuan, pimienta de Sichuan, fresno espinoso chino, pimienta china, pimienta ratán y pimienta mala) es una firma de especias de la cocina de Sichuan en el suroeste de China la provincia de Sichuan.Cuando se ingiere produce un efecto de hormigueo y adormecimiento debido a la presencia de hidroxi-alfa sanshool en el … The different collection and management practices for timur under various access regimes are summarized in Table 2. It has happened to us and many other people we know. Use of NTFPs starts with extraction from natural forests but may gradually be intensified to cultivation of domesticated trees. Farmers can already begin harvesting 3 years after planting, while many other fruit trees take longer. The main contrast with indigenous FUGs is that the forest user committee of a community forest is recognized and sponsored by the state. Collection of timur in the forest was restricted to the members of a forest user group living in a specific community. Cultivation of timur on private lands further increased production efficiency. It is an indigenous spice mostly found in the warmer valley of the Himalayan region of India, Nepal and Bhutan. In the past, villagers cut the shrubs of timur around their cropland for local use as fuelwood. In Nepali, Z. alatum is known as timur, while in Tibetan, it is known as yer ma and in Bhutan as thingay. Farmers mention that the trees are mainly disseminated by birds, who like the fruits. (Collectors reported that, if timur shrubs are easily accessible, as is the case on private land, 1 adult can collect a quantity equivalent to 5 kilos after drying. It's tangy and fresh and a great side for dinner or lunch. At present, timur is no longer used this way. The most important nontimber forest products are listed in Table 1. Regardless of their legal title, these forests are treated by local people as a common property resource and are referred to as hamro ban (our forests). In a recent review, such gradual intensification in managing tree resources was described as follows: Tree growing is likely to evolve through a number of definable common stages. The process of gradual intensification in timur production is also associated with political and legislative changes. Uzbek Temir, Turkish Demir). English Name: Prickly ash, Nepal Pepper, Toothache tree, Sichuan Pepper, Parts Used: Roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds, Habit and Habitat: Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N India, east to China. Nepali Fruits English Names. Cultivation of timur on private lands only became an attractive proposition after the legalization of private land ownership. Recipe. In contrast to earlier Nepalese studies, increased market price rather than increased scarcity was found to be the most important factor inducing intensification. However, since issuing permits to individual collectors is administratively cumbersome, licenses are normally issued to traders rather than to individual collectors. For instance, official recognition of forest user groups allows the strengthening of control measures, for example, by requiring a payment for collection permits. In view of these characteristics, the degree of management intensity is primarily influenced by supply factors. These lands have different forms of tenure and are under different access regimes, resulting in different ways of exploiting and managing timur. Due to their carminative, stomachic, and anthelmintic properties (CSIR 1985), the fruits, seeds, and bark of timur are extensively used in indigenous medicines. Factors that influence the selection of collection areas include distance to and density of the resource, access rules, labor efficiency in collecting and managing timur, and market price. Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh (modern Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan), some 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Samarkand, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate. There is not a clear boundary between natural and cultivated timur stocks but rather a gradual transition from collection of timur from wild resources through increased management of naturally occurring timur stocks and enrichment planting by landowners who claim use rights in forests bordering their croplands to transplanting timur seedlings on private land. Timur is a branched, scandent, or erect shrub or a small tree, 6 m tall or more, with dense foliage (Figure 2). Due to its appealing aroma and valuable perfume, timur is used in the manufacture of several health-care products. Timur (Timur, Chagatai:, ; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (Timur (-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia. This demonstrates that, in general, it is not correct to assume a dichotomy between the extraction of NTFP from wild trees in a natural forest under either open-access or common property regimes and the private cultivation of NTFP species in an agroforestry system (Wiersum 1996). Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website. The reason for doing so was not because timur was becoming scarce in the user-group managed forests. Approximately 200 structured interviews with local timur collectors were conducted with the help of a standard questionnaire. This increase was much higher than the rate of inflation. In both pine and oak forests, timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) grows naturally as an understory species. On the other hand, indigenous FUGs make their own decisions about forest use, while acknowledging that the Forest Department does impose controls. However, hailstorms in spring can destroy the flowers. Nepali Calendar in Nepal is called as nepali Patro. Timur Pepper Nepal, Nepali Timur Shop, Timut Pepper, Timut Pepper Bulk Supply, Buy Organic Zanthoxylum Alatum from Nepal, Zanthoxylum Alatum Health Benefits. After an initial stage of open-access extraction of timur from natural forests, the first attempt to maintain timur resources consisted of controlling utilization of resources through the definition and control of user rights. Furthermore, usufruct rights to timur are not rigid and are neither exclusively private or community or government controlled. This is because sarkari ban forests are located at a greater distance from the villages, making specific collection trips unattractive and limiting harvests to small quantities collected in addition to other activities. Create a new folder below. When prices continued to increase, farmers also began to transplant timur seedlings from the forests onto their own farmland. In Salyan, there is a long tradition of collecting nontimber forest products; approximately 10,500 households (almost one third of all households) are involved in this activity. Nepali Mann Udhyog was created in 2010 and all productsare 100% organic and have lots of natural effects on health. Timur (Nepali pepper) is a shrub or a small tree usually armed with thrones, often forming thickets. This right of shila charnu (literally, going for partial search) allows villagers to collect the remaining timur fruits on the lands of other villagers once the main harvest is over. These forests are usually located at a greater distance from settlements than other forests. Villagers may also have a collective right to collect products from private farmland that remain after the owners have harvested the fields. Nepali Dal English Names. As indicated by the example of timur, these different phases are not discrete. With 400–600 tonnes collected annually, timur is the main nontimber forest product in the Salyan district. The bark is pungent and used to clean teeth. Wild Himalayan garlic (jimbu) and Nepali pepper (timur) are the key flavoring ingredients in Thakali cuisine, and also widely used in hilly cuisines across Nepal. Furthermore, income from sales of forest products can be used for the implementation of small community development projects in the vicinity of the community FUG. These indigenous management practices mostly consist of controlling timur collection through the definition and control of user rights. The collectors receive 50% of the collected products. The fourth factor contributing to increased timur cultivation on private lands is the fact that farmers can use their future yields as collateral for loans and commodity advances from village shopkeepers. COD Available. Leaves usually pinnate, Leaflets 2-6 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, petiole and rachis winged. Usually villagers start to collect timur in July when the fruit is immature. The gradual shift from a subsistence economy to commercialization, together with increasing opportunities for wage labor, stimulated a more efficient input of labor for timur collection on both private and community-controlled land. We guarantee Original Ayurvedic Herbs and Fresh Spices. Our product export around the world and obtains the DFTQC certification on our products. Use of NTFPs starts with extraction from natural forests but may gradually be intensified to cultivation of domesticated trees. Another variety, Z. armatum, is found throughout the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan, as well as in Taiwan, Nepal, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Japan, and Pakistan, and is known by a variety of regional names including timur (टिमुर) in Nepali, yer ma (གཡེར་མ) in Tibetan and thingye in Bhutan. Private landowners may claim exclusive individual usufruct rights on forests bordering their cropland. Thus, the villagers' access to forest resources is not total. Quickly popping in to share “Tomato Timur Achar”, a full-flavored tomato sauce that is best served with mo:mo and chatamari. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. To access this item, please sign in to your personal account. During this process, a gradual transition from collection of NTFPs from natural forests to the purposeful cultivation of trees providing NTFPs in plantations takes place. The study was carried out in the western part of the Salyan district in the midwestern region of Nepal (Figure 1). A $60 All-Clad Fry Pan Set & Other Great Deals for Mother’s Day from Nordstrom’s Sale. Ingredients : Red Chilli, Garlic, Timmur, Sunflower Oil & Salt. For timur owners, such a collection arrangement is only lucrative if timur is present in relatively high densities. A gradual increase in management intensity takes place from public lands to private lands as a result of various socio economic and politico-legislative factors. In Indonesia’s North Sumatra province, around Lake Toba, Z. acanthopodium is known as andaliman in the Batak Toba language and tuba in the Batak Karo language. (Photo by W.H. Shop online in USA with Nepal eMarket. Thus, villagers are free to collect timur fruit in sarkari ban without licenses, and the collection is normally open access. Nepali Kitchen Terms. However, timur has several advantages over other fruit trees. These are important in creating conditions that allow forest users to back up local forest management institutions so they function properly. This plan is prepared by the forest users in collaboration with forest officials. Forest officials and villagers have two opposing (and sometimes conflicting) views of access rights to these forests. In 1980, traders who settled at the border with India paid Nepalese collectors 1.8 Nepalese rupees (NRs) per kilogram for dried timur. Community forests: In the community forests, management practices for timur production are formulated by the officially sanctioned FUGs. In each community, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected on the importance of timur production at both household and community levels and on the way in which timur production is organized. On private lands, timur is sometimes actively propagated by transplanting naturally regenerated seedlings or by seeding, especially on terrace risers (Figure 2). The private owners can effectively plan the supply of family labor for the collection of timur. It requires less fertile soil than most other fruit trees. Leaves usually pinnate, Leaflets 2-6 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, petiole and rachis winged. The average revenue generated is over one quarter of the average annual household income. For example, to harvest trees, the landowner needs the permission of the forest user committee, and payment of a royalty may be involved. An extract of the fruits is reported to be effective in expelling roundworms (CSIR 1985). It is naturally a vegan, gluten-free recipe. Thus, several factors contributed to gradual intensification in the management of timur. Since such products are not very species specific, it is easy to shift from one species to another. 555 likes. In Nepal the new year starts from the middle of april (approximately 17th of the april). Photo about Timur nepali herb plants. Villagers are increasingly involved in seasonal wage labor in the study area. Timur shrubs were also increasingly tolerated on private lands. Nepali Food and Edibles. In the community forests, villagers only have access to forest products, but the forestland remains state owned. This price has continuously increased from NRs 9/kg in 1985 to NRs 22/kg in 1993 and NRs 45/kg in 1995. The second category of government-owned forests is controlled de facto by local FUGs. They were held with the members of two indigenous forest users groups (FUGs), one state-sponsored FUG, and two communities of forest users whose rights of use are based on residence in a ward. The forests in the lower altitudes are dominated by Pinus roxburghii, which sometimes have an understory of Aesculus indica and Bassia latifolia. Revisa las traducciones de 'Timur' en Español. Nepali Mann Udhyog produce traditionally powdered chilly and Sichuan pepper mixed with pickles. Buy Timur , Nepali Dhania , Tomru Seeds at Best Price. The third factor influencing the gradual intensification of timur production is the changing labor situation. Habit and Habitat: Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N India, east to China . The data reported here were obtained as part of a study on the effects of different types of access to land and social networks concerned with the collection and trade of timur in Nepal (Den Hertog 1997). Tomato Timur Achar is a flavorful & spicy tomato sauce made with tomatoes, timur (Nepali Sichaun pepper), garlic, & chili peppers. They often lop the branches in order to facilitate collection; such unregulated lopping decreases subsequent fruit production. In the Salyan district, timur is collected from state, community, and private lands. The Timur berry grows on the Zanthoxylum armatum, a thorny shrub which grows at altitudes of around 2,500 metres. 546 likes. In the case of trees growing on private land, however, farmers own both the land and the tree products. The mature timur trees are pruned and manured with leaflitter. Nepali Mann Udhyog was established in 2010. Because of their deodorant, disinfectant and antiseptic properties, the fruits are used in dental troubles, and their lotion for scabies. In this case, the forest user committee fixes the opening date. Because of their deodorant, disinfectant, and antiseptic properties, the fruits are also used to treat dental problems, and their lotion is used against scabies. According to the Salyan farmers, during the last decade, the presence of timur in the area has increased considerably on both community-managed and private lands. And it takes less than 5 minutes to make it :) Just roast some tomatoes (any kind, I like grape tomatoes) for about 2 minutes in medium heat. In Gregorian Calendar the days of the months are known but in nepali calendar its not the case i.e. Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. In the second story, they may be associated with species such as Rhododendron arboreum and Lyonia ovalifolia. To enhance understanding of the evolutionary processes in NTFP production and the factors that contribute to intensification in managing NTFP species, a case study of the dynamics in the production of timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) in Nepal is presented here. The local market price of timur has increased considerably in the last 2 decades. Consequently, evaluation of the socioeconomic characteristics of NTFP production and assessment of the potential of NTFP extraction for sustained management of natural forests has become an important focus of research (Ros-Tonen et al 1995; Ruiz Pérez and Arnold 1996). Sarkari ban is viewed as the property of the government by both Forest Department staff and local people. Assuming that 1 working day is needed for the collection of 4 kilos of timur, more than 120,000 (wo)man days per year (an average of 12 working days per household) are required in the Salyan district to pick the fruit during the collecting season. During the last two decades, the market price of timur has been increasing considerably. Thus, the rules on timur harvesting in community- and indigenous-managed forests allow equity in the distribution of resource benefits and efficiency in investment of labor as well as in maintenance of production.
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